Supplement #5 First Distribution: June 1, 1990 This supplement: Heroquest Version 2.0 (Steve Maurer) --- From: email@example.com (Steve Maurer) Subject: Heroquest Version 2.0 ( WARNING: LONG ) The following is an improved version of the Heroquest rules published a while ago. Thanks to a large number of people who helped point out flaws and suggest solutions. Steve Maurer firstname.lastname@example.org - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - HEROQUEST rules for Variant Runequest(*).... Author: Steve Maurer Copyright(C) 1989,1990 Steve Maurer (permission to copy for personal non-profit use is hereby granted, as long as this copyright notice is included in the text. All other rights reserved.) NOTE: THIS IS NOT A CERTIFIED VERSION OF GLORANTHA. I HAVE NO RELATIONSHIP WITH THE CHAOSIUM, OR ANY OF ITS STAFF. Foreword Having suffered through 4 convention games of "Heroquest playtest", I came to the conclusion that the official Heroquest was still as far off from completion now as it was back in 1979. The Chaosium remains one of the best "gameworld material" producing companies around, but their ability to design working rules systems has deteriorated dramatically since their heyday in the late 70's. In addition, since Heroquest is a uniquely Gloranthan(*) game, it can never be completed until Greg Stafford decides to put in the effort to fill in his world more completely. In short, I decided that if Heroquest was ever going to come out, someone else would have to do it. Thus, this rules set. In the convention games I ran, I was amazed at how positive their reception was ( unanimously compared favorably to every 'official' Heroquest! ). So much so that I decided to put in the effort to write them down. Even so, this rough draft cannot provide all the necessary background for Heroquesting. This you must do yourself. For me, I used the various legends from the "old-Glorantha" found in Wyrms Footnotes(*), and used hints and hooks from other Gloranthan sources, and used them as a basis of the games. It seemed to work reasonably well. As a final note. Heroquest, in whatever form, is not for everyone. There are limited number of RQ players, only a subset of those have adventures in Glorantha, and even fewer have PCs at a high enough level to really have a chance on the Hero Plane. Finally, since they are usually rather dangerous, even powerful PCs will tend to go on such quests rarely. Perhaps it is for marketing reasons that the Chaosium has never pursued Heroquest. Steve Maurer 3/20/89 (*) Runequest, Glorantha, Wyrms Footnotes, are Trademarks of Chaosium Inc. - - - - - - - - Introduction The Heroquest System is simply a way to deal with high powered RuneQuest characters. "Heroquesting" is the uniquely Gloranthan ritual of passing through the veils of the goddess Time, to enter God-time so that you may fundamentally alter the nature of the Gloranthan universe (usually for the base purpose of accumulating personal power, but sometimes for other things). These rules cover both aspects of Heroquesting. This article is written with the assumption that you are not only an intelligent and experienced RPG player, but that you are already very familiar with the RQ system. These are essentially short "game designer" notes. They are terse, but do explain the entire system. HEROQUEST SYSTEM RULES The Heroquest system is a Variant of RuneQuest. Some RuneQuest rules are altered under Heroquest. The following is a list of the RQ rules which are modified under Heroquest. Where possible the changes are marks with a star (*). Success Levels Success Level Chart (as basis of character's skill "<%>" ) Type Level from.... to.... unless its...... Fumble (-1) 95 + <%>/20 any Miss 0 above <%> 94 + <%>/20 above 94 + <%>/20 Hit 1 above <%>/5 <%> above 94 + <%>/100 * Special 2 above <%>/20 <%>/5 above 94 + <%>/400 * Critical 3 above <%>/100 <%>/20 above 94 + <%>/1000 * * Supercrit 4 above <%>/400 <%>/100 etc.... * * Hypercrit 5 above <%>/1000 <%>/400 etc.... All fractions are rounded down, except in the "unless its" column which are all rounded up. A "00" automatically decrements the Success Level by 1. Text explanation: RQ has the concept of a "level of success". Roll less than your skill percentage and you succeed, roll less than 1/5th your percentage and you "Special". Heroquest expands on this, defining extra levels of success, beyond "mere" criticals. Heroquest also redefines the "automatic miss". When you roll a 95-00, you used to automatically miss. In Heroquest this "missing" percentage is decreased just like fumbles are when you are below 100%. Any roll that's less than: 95 + <%>/100 to hit will (at least) hit, even if the actual die roll is from 95-00. Thus, a 200% fighter will miss only on a 98-00. Example: A hero with a 210% skill level achieves a success level by rolling the following numbers: Roll Level Type 00 (-1) Fumble (a "Miss" -1 level) 98-99 0 Miss 43-97 1 Hit 11-42 2 Special 02-10 3 Critical 01 4 Supercrit when he reaches 500%, he will have Roll Level Type 00 0 Miss (a "Hit" -1 level) 96-99 1 Hit 26-95 2 Special 05-25 3 Critical 02-05 4 Supercrit 01 5 Hypercrit On the Hero Plane, a level 1 success (a "hit") is such a common everyday occurrence, that it really isn't anything special. The dangers are so enormous, the opponents so powerful, that just making your roll doesn't usually work. To really succeed, you must "Special" your skill roll. Because the Hero Plane is so tough, "Hits" are, for all intents and purposes, effectively misses. When you "miss" against a danger from the hero plane, you've REALLY blown it -- much like a Fumble. Thus in Heroquest, percentages are referred to by their chance to Special, not their chance to Hit. If you encounter the vast flowing rapids of one of the primal rivers, a simple Swim roll will not get you past it. In fact, you may very well die unless you Special. A Runelord beginner on the Hero plane with only a 120% chance to hit, has a 24% chance to Special. He is a starting character -- likely to be killed if he opposes all but the weakest opponents. Success Level Results Heroquest redefines the method of applying skills above 100% vs each other. You may NOT subtract your skill percentage above 100% from your opponents skill. Instead, if you Special and your opponent merely makes his roll, then the result is exactly as if you made your roll and he missed. This is codified by the Success Level Result (or "SLR"). To obtain this value, perform the following calculation: Attacker Success Level(+) - Defender's Success Level(+) (+) in combat, a Fumble is just a SL of 0 with other problems. The SLR can be positive or negative, depending on who did better. Weapon Success Level Results In RQ, depending on the weapons used, various results happen from relative success levels (examples are: Ignoring Armor, "Impaling" rules, weapon damage, etc). Heroquest extends these results, and and modifies them slightly. The following is a condensed table. Note the change in slashing/crushing. Attacker's Weapon type SLR Cutting Thrusting Crushing Natural Pole Arm +5 OVRCRT OVRCRT OVRCRT OVRCRT (as type) +4 2CRIT 2CRIT+IMP 2SMASH+CRIT DSRM+2CRIT " +3 CRIT CRIT+IMP 2SMASH DSRM+CRIT " +2 SMASH* IMP SMASH* NWD+DSRM* " +1 NWD NWD NWD NWD " 0 WDVP NE WDVP NE NE SLR Defender's Weapon type ('dodge') -1 PWD NE/(PND)(+) PWD NE NE -2 CRIT+PWD PWD/(IMP) PND NE NE -3 CRIT+PND PND/(CRIT+IMP) 2PND DSRM PWD -4 DSRM CRIT+PND/(2CRIT) 2PND+CRIT DSRM+DMG PND -5 OVRCRT DSRM/(OVRCRT) OVRCRT OVRCRT CRIT+PND (+) Parenthesized Impale results are used when parrying natural weapons. Pole Arms are treated as Pole Arms, unless it says "(as type)", in which case they revert to the "head" of the weapon. Key: CRIT - Bypass normal armor (defensively this removes weapon armor) 2CRIT - "Double Crit": Bypass critical resistant armor IMP - RQ Impale rules (weapon damage + max + damage bonus) NWD - Normal Weapon Damage (roll full damage vs opponent's armor) PWD - Parry Weapon Damage; weapon damage (w/o damage bonus) vs attackers's weapon or natural weapon hit location. WDVP - Weapon Damage vs Parrying (damage parrying implement/location) PND - Parry Normal Damage, weapon + damage bonus. 2PND - "Double parry": 2x Parry Normal Damage SMASH - Double Weapon Damage or Damage Bonus (your choice) 2SMASH - "Double Smash": Double Weapon Damage + Double Damage Bonus DSRM - Parrying or Attacking weapon/shield rendered ineffective DMG - Defender does rolled damage to an attackers hit location OVRCRT - "Over Crit": Whatever you want to happen, does. There can be further modifiers to the combat SLR: +1 SLR if attacker is taking victim completely by surprise
if attacker can see and defender can't if defender is held immobile or unconscious .... these are non-cumulative bonuses -1 SLR to choose hit location after you roll. Example: A +2 ("Crit" result vs a missed parry) may be turned into a +1 "Special" vs a hit location of the attacker's choice. Certain weapons have special results on the SLR table. For instance a "Sword Biter" does a "DSRM" (disarm) on a -2 and -3 SLR. In all other respects it acts like a Cutting weapon. Other Combat Mechanics There are a number of other Heroquest combat mechanics which deserve mention. Strike Ranks -- are a measure of how effectively you can get in an effective blow. The higher your attack percentage, the more quickly you may do this. At 75%, and every +50% thereafter, your SR drops by one. For determining first strike, this value cannot go below Weapon SR, but the combatant with the highest extra "SRs" at a particular rank hits first. If an attack is Split, figure the SRs from the split percentages; however weapon SRs CAN be reduced to 1 on secondary attacks. Multiple Attacks/Parrys -- You may split ANY attack, and ANY parry vs any opponent(s) you choose, as long as you have the Strike Ranks for them. 01 is not an automatic Crit on secondary attacks/parrys. Example: A 200% Fist attack (DEX 21/SIZ 18), gets its attack on 4 (base weapon SR). Split into two 100% attacks gets strikes on 4 and 8; split into a 75% and a 125% gets strikes on 4 and 7. Trying to split into three attacks 75%/75%/50% would give strikes on 4/8/13 (13 - too high). The PC must reach 225 before getting a 3rd attack. Dodge -- For RQ3 fans, "Dodge" is redefined. "Dodge" is simply a "natural weapon parry". You may attempt a "dodge" whether you have a weapon or not, but under most situations doing so is worse than a weapon or shield parry. On full defensive, you may "Dodge" and "Parry", just like you may parry with weapon and shield. Weapon Difficulty Modifiers -- Though it makes little difference at the level Heroquest is usually played at, Weapon Attack difficulty is changed. (Weapon Base Percentage - 20%) is the weapon's attack/exp difficulty modifier. A Greatsword, for instance, has a -15 difficulty modifier. This means that every attack is made with such a weapon as if it was -15%. Because of conversion problems, we assume that weapon skill levels of existing characters are actually at a level which offsets these negatives (i.e. a PC with a Greatsword % of 130%, is actually 145% - 15% difficulty). Rolls for experience are made at the true skill level. Example Combat: Grunnik, a Rune Lord of Zorak Zoran, is running about the Hero Plane Berserk, reveling in the power and glory of true release. Normally he only has a 30% chance to special, but while Berserk he has a 45% (60% vs Chaos). For this, he always "misses" his parry (he doesn't even try). Grunnik comes upon a lesser demon -- about the level of a standard Cacodemon summoning). The demon has a 30% chance to special with two claws, coated with venom. Grunnik luckily has the chance to go first, since he has the reach on the demon. First round: Grunnik rolls a 87%. Bad Luck. Only a hit. The demon makes its 30% special parry, but this doesn't matter as a -1 SLR on "natural weapons" doesn't do anything. However it is now the demon's turn. The demon rolls a 38%, and a 14%. Things look bad for Grunnik. He took not just a hit, but a special - a +1 and +2 SLR result for the demon. The demon's natural weapons (Claws), would disarm Grunnik if he had been parrying, but since he wasn't, he doesn't loose his Maul. The demon does 21 and 19 pts of damage to Grunnik against his armor, which staggers him in his berserk state. Second round: Grunnik rolls a 13. A Critical. Good blow. Even better, the demon rolled a 97, barely missing its parry. (it parries on a 96-). This is a combined SLR of +3 for Grunnik. A Maul is a Pole Arm, but in this case, it refers to Crushing damage. Grunnik does a 2SMASH vs the demon. For Grunnik, this becomes 4d8 + 4d6 (+ 4d4 for his Crush spell) against the demon's armor. Grunnik rolls just slightly above average: 45 pts, which is still enough to remove the rolled hit location -- a 4 (one of the demon's 5 legs). The combat continues..... THE HERO PLANE (The God-Time) The God Time is a very weird place, even for a Gloranthan. It is both the history of Glorantha, and yet also runs somewhat concurrently with time within Time. You can think of Heroquesting as a very magical, and very weird form of time-travel. In this text, Hero plane, God Plane, and God-time and the are used interchangeably. However there is a subtle distinction between them. The Hero Plane is everywhere beyond Time. The God-Plane is the place in the Hero Plane where the various gods reside (their respective domains); these are called the Heavens (or Hells -- for gods you don't like). The God-Time is the furthest 'back' the Hero plane goes, the mythical time before wars or Chaos invaded; to enter the God-Time, a Hero must fight through both the Lesser and Greater Darkness, and the Chaos wars. The Child Time Time is the god(dess) who now orders the universe. The power of time is such that even the gods cannot individually oppose him/her. Time is also called Compromise, or "The Compromise". Time's function is fourfold: First (and foremost) Time prevents Gods from fighting. Gods, even eternal enemies, may only act in accordance to the rules set forth when s/he was born. The rules are set in God-tongue, and thus not understandable by mortals, but they can be roughly translated to: o No direct fighting. o No cursing or harming those who do not worship you (but you may send a minor curse on those who spurn you). o No claiming the souls of spirits that are not yours. o No helping worshipers unless called upon. The more you are called upon, the more you can help. But even when you can help, you may only help your worshiper, not harm another. This is the basis of RuneSpells. It is perfectly all right for a god to "help his/her worshiper" by giving the worshiper a part of the god's abilities -- even if these abilities are used to hurt others. In fact, this practice was common even before the child Time came into existence. Time's second function is to order the universe, to make sure that events happen in sequential fashion. To allow only cause and effect, and outlaw effect-and-cause. Thus all augury magic is useless in Glorantha, except for the occasional glimpses that Arachne Solara (Time's mother) may give. Time's third function is to insure that the powers and curses which were in effect at Time's birth are still in effect, and to give each of the great powers places in Glorantha all their own. In simpler terms, this means that Time is responsible for all "natural processes": the seasons, the process of birth, growth, and death, that weakness and death results if mortals do not eat (even if they do not exert themselves), that creatures descended from the gods conquered by the air gods must breathe air or die, that those descended from gods who were killed must always meet inevitable death. All these "processes" Time enforces. Note that "natural processes", are sanctioned by Time. They are not, under the rules of The Compromise, a direct interference. If a creature foolishly challenges one of Valind's blizzards during the time allotted to that god, then Valind is not responsible for any harm which comes to the creature. Note also, that even these "natural processes" may be opposed, by those strong enough to oppose them. Time, like all gods, is not immune to change. Time's final function is to provide a direct communication between the gods and the world within time. With a few exceptions, a worshiper may ask for divine aid, no matter where he is. The Absence of Time The reason why it is important to know the rules of Time is that Time does not exist on the Hero Plane. NONE of the Laws of Time work on the Hero Plane automatically. Each must be specifically invoked. This means: o If you personally meet a god, and the god doesn't like you, the god can smunch you into tiny little bits. (Or do other things that are much worse). o "Natural Processes" do not occur, unless someone specifically wills it. You can be smunched into tiny little bits, but you will not die unless Death is specifically applied to you (or you will Death upon yourself). By passing beyond Time, you pass before Death (Death knows this, and often tries to block the paths of which he is aware). Your need to breathe, eat, and sleep is diminished to almost nothing. Fire does not burn (unless it wants to), ice does not freeze you (unless it wants to). All natural powers/events still may occur (and many of them do), but only because someone (or thing) invokes them against you. Many deserts, for instance, are a part of the realm of the god of Thirst -- so in them thirst will incapacitate you. o You cannot ask for Divine Intervention, unless you are actually at the feet of your "present" god (who knows you). On the other hand, your God isn't restricted from giving you all the help you need. o You do not regain Temporary POW ("Magic Points") naturally. This is another "natural process", Time is responsible for. Luckily, it is relatively easy to regain Temporary POW for many questers. o All magic you have in effect before you go onto the Hero Plane usually disappears in the ritual which sneaks by Time. If it doesn't, then it only lasts only for its subjective time. o All magic with a Duration, that is actually cast on the Hero plane remains in effect permanently (until you exit). o Any Rune Magic that you use on the Hero plane is gone permanently. Time does counts the spell as being uncast, and your god (once you get back onto the normal plane) is not allowed to replenish it. (If you manage to meet your god on the Hero Plane, you can get all your Rune Magic back). o Elementals can't be summoned unless you are in their primal plane. However, Elementals stay around forever until they are "killed". While in their primal plane, they must be spiritually killed, as they can simply remanifest any body which has been destroyed. o The one exception to the loss of Rune Magic, is that magic which is stored in Truestone while inside Time may be regained inside Time; the spell may be cast on the Hero Plane. This is one of the many reasons why Truestone is so valuable (in addition to its holy significance to most cults). o You do not have to (nor can you, unless you concentrate on it) strictly obey the laws of causality. If a group of Heros on the Hero Plane split up and then rejoin, it is expected that each group will remember different subjective time than others (much like relativity, actually). Typical Heroquests take many years of subjective time. Sometimes hundreds. o Because causality doesn't always exist, you may run across "earlier versions" of Gods, Heros, or other creatures. The god that you worship may not recognize you unless you go to his final resting place ( basically where the god is "now" ). In general, the further back in God-Time it is, the harder it is to get there. o You may eat portions of the enemies you defeat, not only deriving sustenance, but gaining a portion of their power. The more you try to eat however, the more difficult it is to "digest" the power. In addition, if you eat too much, you may become more like what you just ate, than what you are yourself. This can happen even to the gods ( Lodril is a classic example ). This form of power acquisition is shunned by most (except for creatures of Darkness and of Chaos). o Time actively works to prevent those who would contravene the compromise from entering the world. When attempting to exit the Hero Plane, Time will extract a toll. For every heroic ability, you must spend temporary-POW points (ranging from 50-temp points for a small ability, on up into the thousands). You need not supply these temp-POW points yourself. Worshipers may supply them for you. o The track that you take through the Hero Plane is never washed away by time. Paths not only travel between PLACES, but also travel between particular EVENTS. You may follow a path made by another, and it will follow to all events that person found (including ambushes, treasures, etc.) However see the caveat on this below.... Rules Before Time Even before Time, the Universe enforced a few rules which not even the gods had the power to change. The most important is that an event cannot happen more than once (can't be reversed). What happens happens. This has several effects: o You can never meet yourself. o You can't change the history of the gods. For example, you may not go back and try to jump in front of Orlanth's killing blow against Yelm. What happens if you do, is that you find an echo of the original event, and "become" one of the players in it. This, Sorcerors call a "re-enactment", or a "shadow" of the event. If, in the course of the re-enactment, you DO manage to change bad "history" then you do not suffer the curse associated with the act; if you re-enact a triumph, then you get some echo of what the originator of the path received. Following the various gods this way is called "walking in a gods footsteps", and is one of the most common forms of Heroquest. Many cults make a big mystic thing out of this, saying you BECOME your god. But as any Sorceror or Shaman will tell you, that's simply wrong. The Universe doesn't prevent people who don't worship a god from following the god's path, but as matter of practicality, only the god's cultists do. Not only are they the only ones who know their god's paths and its dangers, but often the rewards are something that would be prized only by a cultist of that god. It is VERY dangerous to walk an unknown path, for not only do many lead to certain destruction, but many others lead to rewards you do not want. (The God Learners resolved to discover the paths of various Gods and Heros, and abused them -- earning the emnity of nearly everyone). o If you make your own path, you will not become part of any re-enactment. This is far far more dangerous than following a known path, but can also lead to greater rewards. o If something bad happens to you on the Hero plane, you can't later try to stop it from happening (not even a god can do that). The BEST you can do is try to repair what has been done, but again this usually requires another Heroquest to find a cure. It is usually beyond the scope of the gods. ( Hero Plane curses and blessings are usually quite permanent. ) o Even in their present state, the Gods are not immune to change. If you decide to go where the god is "now", and take him or her on in one-on-one combat (and you win -ha-ha-) then you may injure the god (and perhaps derive some benefit). You may persuade a god to do something, or may teach a god some new craft. This is the way to become a "hero of the cult". Gods, in general, are far more tolerant of Heros than they are of any other cultist. Simply meeting your god is often a way of freeing yourself of a god's minor restrictions (not curses!). o If you are destroyed by some forms of Chaos on the Hero Plane, even the memory of you may be removed from the world. MAGIC OF THE GOD PLANE Magic on the God plane is much more primal than that of the normal plane. This is not just because of the function of Time, but also because the God plane is a much older aspect of creation. (In computerese, it's the Operating System). Hence, many magics are possible on the God plane, that are not in mundane Glorantha. Will Though it is not important to RuneQuest, there is a form of inner strength which is often tested on the Hero plane. This is called WILL. It is a new characteristic. Will is the spiritual strength of the character, the ability to presevere despite opposition or difficult circumstance. It is assumed that characters who have achieved great status among the cults already have a high WILL. In addition, as a character overcomes difficulties, WILL tends to increase (though rather slowly). A "Player Character" receives WILL by the following formula: WILL 3d6 +3 For being a Player Character +1 For being a Lay Member / Student +2 For being an Initiate / Apprentice +3 For being a Rune Priest / Shaman +6 For being a Rune Lord / Sorceror +8 For being a Rune Lord-High Priest / Adept ( bonuses above are non-cumulative ) +10 For being a Hero ( acknowledged by a god ) ....bonuses above are non-cumulative +1 For every "mastered" (100%) skill above 5; natural skills are not counted in this (i.e. walking for humans, swimming for ducks, etc). "Similar" skills (ride horse, ride rhino) don't count twice (this includes extra languages after the 3rd). +1 For every x2 pts permanent POW invested in rune spells (or objects you have enchanted yourself). +? Any time the character accomplishes something extraordinarily difficult through constant perserverence. (Not just a blind luck out.) GM bonus. Minimum WILL (for Player Characters): 13 For Initiates 15 For Rune Priests / Shamans 20 For Rune Lords / Sorcerors ... reroll until WILL at least matches this number. Temporary (for the Heroquest) WILL increases: +1-30 If there is great personal interest in the quest (your life, or loved ones life, depends on it) +5 For every x2 people, for whom you are similarly questing (lots of people's lives depend on it). +1 For each point of Permanent POW or associated Rune Magic thrown into a specific task. Normal Use of WILL As the "unknown" characteristic, it is assumed that the PCs have made their WILL rolls up until this point. However, for starting PCs, or to perform incredible feats of heroism, the following is a reference guide of typical WILL x (X) rolls necessary to get up the courage to perform/resist an action: WILL x ROUGH EQUIVALENT 10 Doing a chore you don't want to do right now 9 Not falling asleep when you are very very tired 8 Cutting yourself 7 Risking your life, when there's a chance of resurrection. 6 Doing a Divine Intervention 5 Risking your life when there's no chance of resurrection. 4 Risking your soul being destroyed (fighting a Vampire) 3 Volunteering for a suicide mission (certain death) 2 Forcing yourself into activity, when you have broken bones 1 Not screaming when tortured 1/2 Volunteering for certain destruction of your soul (troops fighting the Crimson Bat) etc. Magic Use of WILL With enough inner strength, you may change the Universe by sheer force of Will. This is the most basic and fundamental form of magic, embodied by the Magic Rune. However, Willing a change is extremely difficult. A roll of WILL as a percentile is the "base" necessary to make a minor change, but the multiplier varies depending on the difficulty of the change you are attempting to accomplish. (More on this below). You may even do this within Time, though the Universe is much more "solid", and hard to manipulate. Subtract 100 from the final Will roll. Any number below 0, has no chance of success. Forcing your will upon the universe isn't exactly physically painful. However, it is incredibly exhausting, not only to the body but to the Spirit. This is discussed later. Disadvantages of WILL People who have high Wills are stubborn, single-minded, uncompromising, and question all authority. They are often extremely difficult to get along with. As WILL increases, so does the tendency to take on tasks (and Heroquests) individually. While this is mainly for roleplaying, a game mechanic is also provided: any time two heros get into an argument, they must roll under: 100 - (combined WILL/2) to keep from escalating it. Each failed roll escalates the argument by stages: trifling, minor, major, extreme, final. (Some invocations of the Harmony or Disorder runes by others may modify this progression). Characters with high WILL will also have a tendency to become obsessed with certain objects, people, or situations. Again, if a character is presented with the opportunity to fulfill a long sought after goal, he may go for it (take, use, find, etc) despite the feelings of others. Curiously enough, the Gods understand the Willfulness of Heros, and tolerate it. So Heros are traditionally freed from most godly restrictions. This includes minor Geases, cult ties (90% time, and 90% tithe), and minor cult restrictions (such as not having certain spells). Note that you are NOT a Hero (even a minor hero) in the eyes of your God until you actually meet your God in person. This isn't always easy. Also, major restrictions, such as the Humakti love of Death (i.e. No Resurrections), is NOT something a hero can ignore. Finally, the Gods do not actively encourage their Heros to break restrictions, they simply understand and forgive if their Heros do. Spirit NOBODY likes to "use" their Will. Even legendary Heros don't. After a while, if your WILL seems to have little or no effect on the situation, characters will become desperate, and then eventually give up. To simulate this, there is other "Temporary" characteristic called Spirit. Spirit is to WILL what "Magic Points" are to Power. The Spirit starts at WILL, but drops by one ( 1 ) from every usage of Will. If a character's Spirit reaches 0, their "Spirit has been broken". A character with a broken spirit may make NO voluntarily Will rolls, and any involuntary Will rolls (resistance) are at 1/2 normal WILL. There is an exception: if an unopposed WILL roll is over 100%, then no Spiritual loss is charged. It's easy. There is no "storage" of Spirit in magical items, however at the GM's discretion certain actions or events may cause to "sustain one's Spirit". ALL rewards are at the GMs discretion. The standard list is: o "Success" -- On completing a task which needed several Will rolls, most or all of the Spirit lost will be regained. If the character's Spirit was broken, a maximum of 1/3 the Spirit may be regained. o "Hope" -- If a character suddenly sees a way out of a predicament, s/he may receive a number of Spirit points to either A) Get out, or B) Hang on a bit longer (when others are effecting the release). o "Responsibility" -- When a character knows the fate of others rides on his or her success, an extra starting Spirit bonus of up to x1 WILL may be awarded. Note this is NOT usually the case in a "power gathering" Heroquest. o "Hate" -- Hate can make you strong. If success means the destruction of a hated enemy, then an extra starting Spirit bonus of up to x2 WILL may be awarded. Note this is NOT often the case in most Heroquests. o "Love" -- When the fate of a loved one rides in the balance, the Spirit may be sustained at a minimum of 1 point, no matter what other considerations apply. Essentially, the character gains infinite numbers of Will rolls. This is extremely rare. In addition to the limitation of Spirit, the character must pay a minimum of 1 Temporary POW (Magic) Point for each use of WILL. Actually, this number follows a very complex formula, however since Temporary POW is so cheap for most Heroquesters, I will not go into it. (GMs recommendation: if the Heros try to make large scale changes, charge from 5 - 30 Magic Points). Modifiers to Will Rolls The difficulty of forcing the universe to respond depends on various modifiers: the Scope (the area over which the change has effect), the Magnitude (the power of the effect you are attempting to achieve), and Runic Associations (the relationship the hero has to the Rune of the task he is attempting to accomplish). The mechanic is simple: each Modifier acts as temporary MULTIPLIERS to the character's WILL, for the completion of the task. All are subject to GM discretion. GM guideline to Temporary Will Modifiers: WILL x Scope 1/8 Attempt to change the nature of Glorantha (*) 1/4 Attempt to make changes over an entire domain (*) 1/2 Attempt to make changes over a battlefield area 1 Attempt to make changes to a specific target (line of sight) 2 Attempt to defend yourself in a direct attack (not just because you happen to be in combat) 4 Attempt to defend yourself from a second, similar attack, from the same enemy(s). (*) Note that you must also overcome the WILL of all those within the area to make the change. For overly large areas, this makes it basically impossible. See WILL vs WILL below. WILL x Magnitude 0 Alter the Universal Laws 1/8 Incredible alterations (e.g. Superhero/Dragon/God Magic) 1/2 Huge alterations (e.g. Hero/Chaos Magic or Features ) 1 Major alterations (e.g. Standard "D.I.", non-reusable R.M.) 2 Minor alterations (e.g. Rune Magic) 3 Negligible alterations (e.g. Battlemagic) WILL x Runic Association (the relationship with the Task's Rune) 0 Invoking a Severed Rune 1/4 Invoking a Fractional Rune 1/2 Invoking a Minor Rune 1 Invoking a Major Rune 2-5 Invoking an Tied Rune 6-9 Invoking an Allied Rune 10-20 Invoking an Embodied Rune ( See Runic Associations below ) WILL x Extraneous 1/2 If the character acts against a Runic Trait (can be lower -- see below) 1/2-1/8 To make a permanent change (can be lower -- also almost always requires additional prerequisites.) 1/2 If the WILL usage is trivial. ( This divisor increases for extra rolls -- see below ) 1/2 If the character is in spirit form, attempting to affect an embodied spiritual object (living creature) (*) 2 - 1/4 Previous successes: Unfamiliar (x1/4) 1-10, Familiar (x1/2) 11-100, Practiced (x1) 101-1000, Mastered (x2) 1000+; Very Mastered (x3), and Utterly Mastered (x4) not practicable. 1/2-1/8 Seems (to PC) very unlikely to succeed. 1/4 A spirit attempting to affect an inanimate object. (*) 4 - 1/8 Acting with/Attempting to Overcome the original result of a reenactment (depends on original's "finality") (*) When reduced to 0 HP, you may only act as a Spirit until healed. WILL vs WILL Opponents often WILL opposite effects to occur, especially in combat. Resolving contests like this is simple: whoever makes the better modified WILL roll (as a multiple) wins. Ties go to the status quo. Length of WILL Use There is NO duration on the Hero Plane. WILL rolls either effect a permanent change, or must be maintained by concentration. (The vast majority are the latter). The character may usually only concentrate on one thing at a time. Unopposed Will rolls over 100% can usually be maintained while doing other things, however. Rerolling WILL failures Characters may reroll WILL failures, but there is a caveat. In addition to the loss of Spirit, the character may never achieve a result more than twice as good as the initial roll. Example: If the original roll was WILL x 4, the best future result could be only WILL x 2. Also, if the usage is trivial (i.e. the character doesn't REALLY care about the outcome), the WILL divisor fraction increases: 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, etc. This is determined by the GM. Example: An Orlanthi decides to Fly. He has a 23 WILL, this is a Minor Alteration of one of his Major Runes (explained later). He isn't all that worried about not doing this, since it's just to save him from having to climb over 50 miles of rocks (would take a few subjective "days" -- big deal). His final roll is: 23 x 2 x 1 x 1/2 = 23% chance. He rolls a 36, and can't quite get off the ground. Being stumped, he decides to try again. He now has a: 23 x 2 x 1 x 1/3 = 15% chance. Rolling an 11, he is off and flying. He will continue to fly, until he decides to use his WILL elsewhere. RUNIC ASSOCIATIONS The Runic Associations described above are the association that the character has with the rune of the change he is attempting to perform. The Runes are more than symbols. They represent the fundamental aspects of creation, and allow the character more power over that aspect of creation. For example, a character Tied to the FIRE rune, can make things burn. ALL skills and spells have runic associations. However, due to space considerations, they will not be listed here. GMs are encouraged to use common sense. For every rune, look at a cult who has it as a major aspect, and examine the "1/2 price" skills and spells. Some skills and spells are associated with multiple runes; average a PC's rune masteries in this case. Every character has a relationship with all Runes (yes, including Chaos). In Heroquest, this is called "Rune Mastery" of a particular rune, and ranges from 0% to 100%. Most mortal beings start with a 10% (Fractional) relationship with ALL runes. There may be alterations depending on race and gods worshiped. (There are relationships above 100, but they are unattainable by mortals -- runes above 100% are called "Aspects" of your nature) % Mastery Relationship (0) Severed Rune 01-19 Fractional Rune 20-39 Minor Rune 40-59 Major Rune 60-79 Tied Rune 80-99 Allied Rune 100 Embodied Rune A PC gets a Allied (80%) relationship when: - The PC becomes a Major Hero of the god who is the embodied Aspect of that Rune. - The PC finds the elemental Rune, and Allies himself directly with it. A PC gets a Tied (60%) relationship when: - The PC becomes a Major Hero of a god who possesses this rune as a Major Aspect. - The PC becomes a Hero of the god who is the embodied Aspect of that Rune ( Hero of Chalana Arroy is Tied to Harmony, Hero of Humakt is Tied to Death, Hero of Red Moon is Tied to the Moon, Hero of Orlanth Thunderous is Tied to Air) - The PC finds the elemental Rune, and Ties himself directly to it. A PC gets a Major (50%) relationship when: - The PC becomes a Hero of a god, who possesses the rune as a Major Aspect. ( Hero of Orlanth Rex is Major in Mastery, Hero of Zorak Zoran is Major in Death, etc ) - The PC becomes a Rune Lord High Priest of the god who is the embodied Aspect of that rune. - All Shamans have a 50% relationship to the Spirit Rune. - The PC is a member of a Great Race associated with that rune... Mistress Race Trolls have a Major association with Darkness. Iron Dwarfs have a Major association with Stasis. Etc. A PC gets a Major (40%) relationship when: - The PC becomes a Rune Lord High Priest of a god who possesses the rune as a Major Aspect. A PC gets a Minor (30%) relationship when: - The PC becomes a Rune Lord High Priest of a god who possesses the rune as a Minor Aspect. - The PC becomes a Rune Lord or High Priest of a god who possesses the rune as a Major Aspect. - A Shaman PC allies himself with a Great Spirit who possesses the rune as a Major aspect. - The PC is a member of a Race associated with that rune... All men are Tied to the Man rune, Dark Trolls are also Tied to Darkness, Elves are also Tied to Plant, Dwarves are also Tied to Stasis, Wind Children are also Tied to Air, Agamori are also Tied to Fire, Broos are Tied to Beast and Chaos (but not Man), etc, etc. A PC gets a Minor (20%) relationship when: - The PC becomes a Rune Lord or High Priest of a god who possesses the rune as a Minor Aspect. - The PC becomes a simple-Priest (Acolyte) of a god who possesses the rune as a Major Aspect. A PC gets a Fractional (15%) relationship when: - The PC becomes an Initiate of a god who possesses the rune as a Major Aspect. - The PC is a member of a cursed Race associated with that rune... Trollkin have a 15% relationship with Darkness, Ducks have a 15% relationship with beast. A PC gets a Fractional (5%) relationship when: - The PC is a member of a Race Tied to the opposite of that rune.... Trolls only have a 5% relationship with Fire, Dwarves have 5% relationship with Mobility, etc. Sorcerors' spells may also impart a relationship. For every 10% of a spell Tied to a rune, the Sorceror has a minimum 1% relationship. These are NOT cumulative. If the Sorceror has Burn and Summon Fire Elemental at 130% and 170%, he has a 17% (Fractional) relationship with Fire. The maximum gainable in this fashion is 30%. This effect is two way. A sorceror cannot go beyond 10 x his Runic Mastery in any Spell which uses that Rune in a major aspect. This means all sorcerors are normally limited to 10 x 30 = 300% in most spells until they gain more runic mastery from somewhere. You MAY NOT "turn down" a relationship with a Rune. Getting rid of a relationship is just as hard, or even harder than gaining one. Other Prerequisites for Spell Use of Runes While Will can be used to create spell effects, this is by no means automatic. In addition to the higher WILL rolls, the character must know the "formula" for the particular Rune spell-effect. Simply having the FIRE rune doesn't give you a Sun Spear. You may develop this though gift, or just enough enough practice "under stress". (See "Previous Successes" in the WILL roll section.) Runemagic use counts as a "success", even within Time, but only up to the level of Practiced. Thus, most long time Priests will be Practiced in their god's runic abilities (that they have sacrificed for). Other Costs for Spell Use of Runes Permanent effects also cost the character permanently. This depends on what kind of effect the character is attempting to make. ANY Permanent Major effect costs the character 1 - 10 pts Permanent POW for each use (GM determines cost). ANY Permanent Huge effect costs the character 2 - 20 pts Permanent POW, plus 1 - 5 pts WILL. Permanent Incredible alterations are beyond the scope of normal Heroquest, but REALLY cost. Runes and Skills It is easy to learn skills Associated with your Runes. A WILL roll allows you to train in a skill every time you have an opportunity to do so. As time does not exist, a character may spend several hundred years perfecting a skill (as long as it interests him). This bonus lasts up until the Special Chance is equal to the Rune Mastery of the associated skill. Note that you can't be "trained", unless you have either gotten a check, or have a source of knowledge. You don't get extra WILL training in this fashion, except with special GM permission. Example: Takir, Rune Priest of Lankhor Mhy has just found a book of Ancient Law. In it is +10 Special (50% normal) training in Law, +3 Special (15% normal) training in Jrusteli History, and +1 Special (5% normal) training in World Lore: Cults. As Takir has a 25% association with the Truth rune, with a Will roll he may study the book until he has learned it to a max of 25% Special. Since his Law is already 20%, his lack of Truth Mastery prevents him from learning all the book has to teach him (he can't quite remember it all). When he achieves a 30% association with the Rune of Truth, he may find new interest in the book, learning it up to the max 30% it can teach him. POW vs POW Basic Power vs Power does not change on the Hero Plane. In addition to making WILL rolls, a character must overcome a targets POW with his own for any ranged spell to work. As both WILL and POW must be beaten, this makes ranged spells slightly less powerful than within time. Runes In Opposition Many Runes have opposites. Truth/Illusion, Luck/Fate, Harmony/ Disorder, Light/Darkness, Movement/Stasis, Life/Death. A characters Rune Mastery total may not exceed 100% for Runic opposites. (i.e. 60% Movement means you may only have a maximum of 40% Stasis). This is one of the chief reasons to attempt to sever a relationship with a rune. Exception: Runes which have been twisted/modified by Chaos may ignore this rule. Many Chaos heros, and even some Chaos Gods, have opposite Chaos runes. Disadvantages of Runes (Runic Traits) At higher levels of Runic Mastery, the character does not so much have control over a Rune, but rather becomes part of it. This affects the personality. The exact effect is left up to the individual GM, but the mechanic is the same. A percentile die roll under a PC's: (Runic Mastery) - (WILL / 5) means the individual acts in accordance to his Runic Personality. This isn't necessarily bad. Any act in accordance with a Runic Personality Trait is automatically NOT a "trivial use" if the Runic Trait roll is made. However, acting against a made Runic Trait roll requires a Will (x 1) roll. Even if this is made, the WILL of the character is halved on any act which works against the character's Runic Trait(s). Note that certain spells have the same effect as "making" one's Runic Trait roll. Specifically Berserker is the standard Runic Trait of Death, Seduction is the standard Runic Trait of Fertility, Peace is the Standard Runic Trait of Harmony, etc. Runic Traits are similar between characters, but not always the same. Humakti, for instance, don't go Berserk; they become extremely brave (ala Morale). Note that characters don't HAVE to attempt their Will roll to stop acting against their Runic traits. The PC must make the WILL roll, only made if they want to act contrary to their natures. Spirits vs Embodied Spirit Combat also exists. All spirits are visible, and travel at twice the speed of embodied creatures. Spirits of ANY power may attack an embodied character. They get the number of attacks they did in normal form, however (with rare exceptions) do only the normal "magic point" (temporary POW) damage. Magical weapons work against the spirits POW as if they were Hit points, and magical Shields may be used to parry (forcing the Spirit to Impale to hit). Disembodied spirits are at an extreme disadvantage, unless they massively overpower those whom they are attacking. Spirits also have a reduced WILL when attempting to attack the physical plane. Their WILL is halved on all interactions with physical things occupied by a Spirit (such as living creatures), their WILL is quartered when dealing with inanimate objects. Spirit Blood Temporary POW which is lost as a result of spirit combat does not disappear. It remains and pools like glowing blue blood. This may be ingested by characters, restoring Temporary POW lost. All Inclusive Example Exercising The Rules: Grunnik, has just polished off the lesser demon. It lies, alive but broken on the field before him. Despite its broken body, the Demon is not dead. This is a natural process within Time, but does not have any effect on the Hero Plane. As Grunnik is Berserk, he automatically makes his Runic Trait: Death. Screaming "DIE DIE DIE", he attempts to part the demon's spirit from its broken body. Grunnik has a Will of 32, and Death as a Major aspect (he is a Rune Lord High Priest of Zorak Zoran). He is attempting a permanent change (Death), satisfying the prerequisites for this change: destruction of the target's body. (This is one of the easiest permanent changes to make - Death is a powerful rune). His final roll is: 32 x 1 (Major) x 1 (applied to a Target) x 2 (Minor alteration) x 1/2 (Permanent Change: Death) = 32. He rolls a 17, under x1 his WILL, but just missing 1/2 his WILL roll. To save itself from Death, the demon must counter with its own Will roll. It has a WILL of 41, but unfortunately also has Death as a Major aspect (55%). The demon must first roll more than (55 - 41/5 =) 47% to avoid following its own Runic Trait: Death. It rolls a 96, making it easily. If it had not made this, it would have had to roll its Will roll (41%) to avoid applying Death to itself. Even so, its Will would have been halved to resist Grunnik's Will. The demon is defending itself from a personal attack (WILL x 2), and is attempting a Minor Alteration (defense). However, must use Life in defense of the Death from Grunnik, for which it only has a 8% (Fractional) association. Also, because its body is broken, it can only act as a Spirit. Its roll is: 41 x 2 (personal defense) x 2 Minor Alteration x 1/4 (Fractional) x 1/2 (Spirit) = 21% Will roll. The demon rolls an 85%, getting Will x 4. Not good enough. It dies. The Demon isn't finished yet however. It decides to attack, clawing at Grunnik's spirit. The Demon has two claws, and a 51 POW. As Grunnik has no special protections, the spirit only needs a Level 1 success (a hit). It easily overcomes Grunnik with both claws, draining 2 and 1 point of temporary POW. Grunnik replies with his Maul. The Maul does no damage, however the 4 points of Crush and Bludgeon do. Grunnik hits doing 16 points of temporary POW damage to the spirit. At this point the demon decides to flee. Grunnik decides to leave it, feasting on the 16 pts of spiritual blood left. Prizes of Victory/Agony of Defeat Few creatures have the ability to actually apply Death to those whom they defeat. However, there are other things you may do with/to those whom you defeat. A character may attempt to wrest something from a defeated foe, or curse them, etc. When reenacting a shadow, it is very difficult to gain more than what was gained in the original event; same thing can be said for loosing things as well. Here are a few classical prizes of victory: Annihilation - A Permanent "Huge alteration". Invoking the primal RUNE of Chaos to utterly destroy the foe. Even the victim's memory fades. Corruption of Chaos - A Permanent "Major alteration". Gives the victim extra Runic Mastery of Chaos. This will lead to the victim being forcibly turned chaotic. (Note: The Death rune can sever this like anything else, but at the cost of the character's life). Absorbing your Victim - Take a portion of your foe and eat it, attempting to absorb a Rune power contained therein. A Major alteration to remove it from your victim preserving its nature, a Permanent Huge alteration to incorporate it into yourself. (Via Runes of Darkness or Chaos.) Using a piece of your Victim - Take a portion of your foe, and attempt to use it independently of yourself (using a scorpion's stinger, the victim's head, etc). A Major alteration to remove the body part preserving its nature, a Minor to Major alteration to use the item. (Via various Runes - Mastery is one; Chaos is another) Robbing your Victim - Take an item from your foe (if it has one). A Minor alteration to use the item. ( Via Rune that activates the item ) Recruiting your Victim - Persuading your foe to become one of your followers. ( Harmony or Mastery Rune ) Many permanent relationships are formed this way. A classic Orlanthi prize. Enslaving your Victim - Using your foe as an unwilling slave. ( Death, Darkness, Chaos, Disorder, or Mastery Rune ) Often the slave may escape or be freed. Imprisoning your Victim - Freezing the victim where he is, ending his path permanently (or until freed). ( Stasis Rune ) Killing your Victim - A permanent "minor alteration" which parts the spirit from the physical form. (Via the Death rune) Stealing Magic (Temporary POW) from your Victim - Stealing temporary POW up to your maximum from your victim. (Via the Magic, Spirit, or Undeath Rune ) Stealing permanent POW from your Victim - Stealing Permanent POW. (Via the Undeath Rune ) Healing your Victim - Undoing curses of violence or chaos. Creatures who have been unwillingly turned chaotic usually must be subdued before they can be healed ( Harmony or Fertility Runes ). Note also, that some creatures (such as Vampires) do not WISH to be "healed". Pacts with the Old Powers Not all encounters on the Hero plane are ones of violence. Often you may be treated favorably if you treat other beings with respect ( often this must be fawning bootlicking ). Having Mastery of the Harmony rune is often a good thing if you wish to talk to some creatures -- failing that, Mastery of the Mobility rune is another big plus. When Time was born, many immortal beings were frozen out. There were many reasons for this, but the biggest two were either that they were unable or unwilling to support Time. "Now" they want back in. Those Unwilling to Support Time Chiefly these were chaos demons, but there were a few holdouts among the great spirits. These creatures wish to directly oppose the will of Time, and seek a conduit to bring their physical form into Time so as to continue their physical existence. However, they need mortal sponsors to help get them past the barriers Time has erected. The classic archetype of this type of creature is the Crimson Bat. Those Unable to Support Time Wounded gods, Great Spirits who too busy defending themselves to give Time any power, and Chaos gods who see which way the wind is blowing. These gods originally did not (or could not) accept Time, and so were locked out. However, they now accept the rules of Time, and wish mainly to start a cult within time to gain worshipers. Again, they need help from mortal beings to do this. Gods, demons, and great spirits cannot, of course, force characters to worship them. However they can offer enticements. Power is one. Additional Runic Mastery is another. These may be sealed with pacts strong enough to affect one's Word, Power, and Soul. Word Pacts A simple agreement. I'll do this if you do that. You bring this to me, and I'll give you that. This is not the easiest pact for a character to forge, because there is often little that a great spirit wants. ( It's easier with demons, because often all they want is IN. ) Sorcerors, and Priests of Issaries are the greatest masters of this kind of pact. Gods are not usually jealous of you having a Word Pact with other spirits, as long as they aren't Chaotic -- it is even expected of Issaries heros. There is no penalty to breaking such a pact, unless the character is foolish enough to return to the same spot on the Hero plane. On the other hand, there is no guarantee that the Spirit or Demon will keep its pact with you! Power Pacts Most Characters are intimately familiar with Power Pacts, for this is what it means to become a Cultist. Being an Initiate, Priest, or Lord are all power pacts, as are binding spirits. A Power Pact requires the sacrifice of 1 or more permanent points of POW. The minimum 1 POW is not given to the other being, but rather sets up a Link between the two creatures by which other things may be granted. Both sides are wary of making such a pact, because it is a far more intimate relationship. Because of this, Gods and Spirits are jealous of their Power Pacts. They prefer worshipers have no other pacts, or at the minimum, pact with friends they have pacted with (Associated Gods). It is a very exceptional individual who can persuade gods into simultaneous Pacts. It is easier for Shamans, because Great Spirits are often much more desperate for worshipers. Creatures in a Power Pact understand each other very well. They can often influence each other with their opinions. The gods especially fear this, knowing that too many worshipers who secretly wish to change them may accidentally do so. This is why cults are so restrictive in their membership, even in a polytheistic society. Breaking a Power Pact cannot be accomplished before the injured party gets to curse you. Although this is usually from spurned god to mortal (in the form of a Spirit of Retribution), few realize that the opposite holds true as well; if a god reneges on a promise, you may curse him. Don't laugh. It's happened. Soul Pacts These are the most intimate Pacts of all. Powerful and dangerous, they are also called Will Pacts. Each bargainer gives an elemental piece of him/herself into a merged whole. This does many things. Both may share all knowledge, magic, innate powers, rune masteries, and the Will of both may be brought to bear on things that all agree upon. However if there is a disagreement, a WILL vs WILL roll is necessary to determine which course is taken. Soul Pacts may be limited in nature, so as not to subsume either personality. The more Limited, the less power that is shared. However, even limited Soul Pacts often eventually result in a slow merging of personalities. It depends on the exact nature of the pact. Breaking a Soul Pact is extremely difficult, if not impossible. The character must first WANT to break the pact, which requires a Will roll; if one member of the pact wants the pact to remain, then this Will roll must overcome the other. Second, breaking a Soul Pact is at least a Major alteration (for the most limited of Pacts). For greater Soul pacts, it's a Huge or Incredible alteration. Final Notes Much of what has been discussed previously is known to the peoples of Glorantha. Much of it is not. And most of it is truth filtered through one perspective or another. While you or I might think it's crazy to consider a Soul Pact with a Chaos Demon, such things do happen with reasonable regularity. --- The RuneQuest(tm) mailing list is a courtesy of Andrew Bell. All opinions and material above are the responsibility of the originator, and copyrights are held by them. RuneQuest is a trademark of Chaosium, Inc. Send submissions, mailing list changes, requests for old article lists, etc. to: email@example.com ...!mcnc!unc!bell Request old articles by volume number and issue number.